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scholarly articles on racism

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Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health


Both authors equally contributed to the conceptualization, drafting, and editing of this article. The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices scholarly articles on racism our legal system, racialized police violence, and police mis conduct.

What is glaringly absent is a public health perspective in response to these events. We aim to fill this gap and expand the current dialogue beyond these isolated incidents to a broader discussion of racism in America and how it affects the health and well-being of people of color.

Our goal is not only to reiterate how salient structural racism is in our society, but how critical antiracist work is to the core goals and values of public health. Martin Luther King, Jr.

In both instances, the White police officers responsible for the deaths were neither charged with any crime, nor taken to trial. As public health professionals, we are committed to achieving optimal health for all.

Our position is not a new one. Yet, almost two decades later, scholarly articles on racism, explicit conversations about racism remain glaringly absent from most mainstream public health discourse. Although our commentary was motivated by the recent nonindictments in the Garner and Brown cases, we intend to expand the conversation beyond these individual high-profile cases to discuss racism and public health more broadly. Specifically, our goal is to emphasize how race and racism in our society are central to the field of public health.

The intent of our commentary is to 1 acknowledge racism as a critical public health concern, 2 distinguish between the constructs of race and racism for public health, scholarly articles on racism, 3 discuss the pervasiveness of structural racism in our society, and 4 offer calls to action. First, we assert that racism as a social condition is a fundamental cause of health and illness.

Therefore, public health, at its core, is antiracist work. Health disparities, discrimination, and residential segregation, which are topics familiar to public health researchers, are by-products of racism, scholarly articles on racism. Undermining or disguising the impact of racism on racialized health disparities enables the perpetuation of these inequities. In many ways, our stance mirrors the position by Krieger on the role of poverty in health research.

Therefore, we posit that we will continue to fall short of local, state, and national goals to eliminate racialized health disparities if we ignore the multifaceted ways in which racism, as a societal epidemic, plays a dominant role in our communities. Second, race and racism are not interchangeable constructs.

Each needs its own distinct conceptualization, measurement, scholarly articles on racism, and analysis for public health research.

However, being Black in America a racially stratified society has negative implications for educational and professional trajectories, socioeconomic status, and access to health care services and resources that promote optimal health, scholarly articles on racism which in combination, may reduce or exacerbate health risks. In a racially stratified society, White lives are inherently valued over Black lives. Racism, defined earlier, is a system based on race that unfairly disadvantages some individuals and communities, and advantages others.

Although both race and racism are relevant to health, typically only race is included as a research question, variable, or topic in most health studies. However, doing so will not advance our thinking about the impact of scholarly articles on racism on health. Third, racism can include interpersonal acts of discrimination, but it is not limited to individual acts of bias.

These factors include the entrenched racism in our legal, social, and political systems that enable police officers to disproportionately stop people of color, often without cause, scholarly articles on racism, and who do so with greater use of force without any repercussions.

Mass incarceration of people of color further exemplifies how structural factors, such as racial inequity and discriminatory practices within our criminal justice system, perpetuate racialized health disparities. Current estimates are that one in three Black men will be behind bars at some point in their lifetime.

Once released, individuals with a criminal record lose eligibility for social programs, 50 experience voter disenfranchisement, and face discrimination when seeking housing and employment, all of which are deleterious for the health and well-being of individuals, families, scholarly articles on racism, and communities. Although a more detailed discussion goes beyond the scope of this commentary, we recognize that scholarly articles on racism adverse health effects of structural racism are not limited to the criminal justice system.

Prominent examples of structural racism also include residential segregation 38 and the digital divide, 53 which result in systematic disadvantages among people of color.

Therefore, current efforts to reduce racialized health disparities will have limited impact without serious consideration of relevant structural factors. Racism permeates our everyday lives, even if we do not readily acknowledge its power or pervasiveness.

We believe that collective efforts can help evoke social change and more generally reduce racialized health disparities and inequality. Inspired by, and in solidarity with, other position statements 20,55—59 on racialized police violence, we call on our colleagues to mobilize and strategize a reformed public health agenda that recognizes the connection between structural racism and racialized disparities in health.

Implementation of this agenda requires a multipronged, multilevel, and interdisciplinary approach. However, as public health professionals, we are uniquely positioned to facilitate the scholarly articles on racism responses. Consistent with our argument that the field as a whole needs to confront racism, we advocate for the integration of race-conscious curricula 60,61 in public health programs based on the social justice principles and history of public health.

These curricula can include models, theories, and methodologies that explicitly recognize racial injustice as a threat to health. To advance our understanding and analysis of race, racism, and health, we call for more support of scholarly articles on racism research. Potential sources for support include, scholarly articles on racism, but are not limited to, the National Institutes of Health and the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health.

A racism-focused research agenda scholarly articles on racism include the collection and provision of the data 47,64 necessary for developing and testing measures of racism, as well as delineating relevant pathways for health. Public health researchers and practitioners must actively engage with communities of color to deepen our understanding of the scholarly articles on racism and complex ways that structural racism affects individual and community-level health.

We must stand with our community partners to advocate for relevant scholarly articles on racism that improve health in communities of color, and support local, state, and federal initiatives that advance social justice.

We have 1 emphasized racism as a key fundamental cause of health that is crucial in the work of any public health professional, 2 discussed the importance of distinguishing between race and racism in public health work, and 3 described how racism goes beyond any isolated incident because it is structural.

A public health agenda, guided by the principles of social justice and equity, provide promising prospects for reversing the current inequalities. We are convinced that we have an ethical and professional responsibility to address racism as an inherent component of health equity and optimal health for all.

We believe that Black lives matter and that the field of public health can guide the nation toward ensuring they do. We are grateful to Chandra Ford, PhD, for her mentorship and guidance on this commentary. We appreciate, and are inspired by, how she shares her passion for social justice and public health with her students, both in and outside of the classroom.

We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful feedback on an earlier version of this paper. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institute on Aging or the National Institutes of Health. National Center for Biotechnology Informationscholarly articles on racism, U. Am J Public Health. Published online August. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Contributors Both authors equally contributed to the conceptualization, drafting, and editing of this article. Accepted April 5, This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police mis conduct. Healthy People explains, achieving health equity requires valuing everyone equally with focused and ongoing societal efforts to address avoidable inequalities, historical and contemporary injustices, and the elimination of health and health care disparities.

Training Consistent with our argument that the field as a whole needs to confront racism, we advocate for the integration of race-conscious curricula 60,61 in public health programs based on the social justice principles and history of public health.

Research To advance our understanding and analysis of race, racism, and health, we call for more support of racism-related research. Community-Engaged Advocacy Public health researchers and practitioners must actively engage with communities of color to deepen our understanding of the pervasive and complex ways that structural racism affects individual and community-level health.

References 1. King ML. Strength to Love. Rhodan M. Accessed December 9, Pew Research Center. Sharp racial divisions in reactions to Brown, Garner decisions. Accessed December 8, BBC News. Eric Garner death: 76 arrested at London Westfield demo [transcript]. Accessed December 12, Ralph L, Chance K. Garsd J. Ferguson lawyer to represent family of Latino man shot 17 times by police [transcript] Morning Edition. National Public Radio. February 26, Accessed March 30, Juzwiak R, Chan A.

Unarmed people of color killed by police, scholarly articles on racism, West Savali K. Black women are killed by police, too. Accessed December 11, Law V. Remembering the Black women killed by police.

Bitch Magazine. Dionne E. Accessed December 10, Torassa U. SF Gate. Jones CP. Confronting institutionalized racism. Washington, DC:

 

 

scholarly articles on racism

 

Black Lives Matter: A Commentary on Racism and Public Health. The recent nonindictments of police officers who killed unarmed Black men have incited popular and scholarly discussions on racial injustices in our legal system, racialized police violence, and police (mis)conduct. Racism, defined earlier, is. Fighting Racism in the Twenty-First Century Dorothy A. Brown Follow this and additional works at:vjesnikws.ga Part of theCivil Rights and Discrimination Commons This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Washington and Lee Law Review at Washington & Lee University School of Law Scholarly Commons. Find articles. with all of the words. with the exact phrase. with at least one of the words. without the words. where my words occur. anywhere in the article. in the title of the article. Return articles authored by. e.g., "PJ Hayes" or McCarthy. Return articles published in. e.g., J Biol Chem or Nature.